## Tuesday, October 25, 2016

### ElectroniCast Consultants

Market Forecast Studies

ElectroniCast specializes in forecasting technology and global market trends in electronics, fiber optics, light emitting diodes (LEDs), advanced photonics, integrated circuits, microwave/wireless, and network communications. As an independent consultancy they offer multi-client and custom market research studies to the world's leading companies based on comprehensive, in-depth analysis of quantitative and qualitative factors.

## Sunday, October 23, 2016

### Subsidized LED Tube Lights in India

BENGALURU: The government's energy efficiency scheme is all set to be tweaked for Bengaluru: Instead of LED (light-emitting diode) bulbs, the authorities will distribute LED tubelights at highly subsidized prices.

Energy minister DK Shivakumar said: "We have realized that a majority of Bengalureans have got used to tubelights as part of their domestic lighting system. We have been promoting the energy efficiency scheme (Hosa Belaku) in rural areas and we wish to scale it up in the urban sector. Since not many are keen on LED bulbs we decided to distribute LED tubelights in Bengaluru."

An LED tubelight, which costs around Rs 750 in the open market, will be supplied at Rs 250. The price will vary according to the wattage and distribution will be through Energy Efficiency Service Limited (EESL), a joint venture of public sector undertakings of the Union power ministry. There are plans to distribute energy-efficient fans.

The government has advocated the use of energy efficient domestic lighting for some time now. "We have decided to reduce the price of LED bulbs. One will now cost Rs 50," Kumar said.

Source: The Times of India

### LED Display Plant in Hiroshima Prefecture - Japan

Sharp Corp. is considering closing a light-emitting diode display plant in Hiroshima Prefecture next year as part of its restructuring efforts under Taiwan’s Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., sources familiar with the matter said on October 23, 2016.

The electronics company may consolidate the production line at the facility in Mihara, Hiroshima Prefecture, with a factory in Fukuyama in the same prefecture, which mainly produces camera components for smartphones, the sources said.

Sharp will also study downsizing a liquid crystal display television factory in Tochigi Prefecture, they said.

The company plans to secure the jobs of the approximately 300 employees at the Mihara plant, according to the sources.

Sharp is taking steps to return to profitability in the fiscal year ending in March 2017 for the first time in three years.

Due to continued sluggish sales in LED panels, however, consolidated sales for the same year are expected to drop from ¥2.4 trillion in the previous year.

Source: THE JAPAN TIMES LTD.

## Monday, October 17, 2016

### Oculus Acquires InfiniLED

Oculus, the virtual-reality company owned by Facebook, acquired Irish startup InfiniLED, according to a report (October 14) by The Irish Times. Financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

InfiniLED specializes in a technology called Inorganic LED Display, a variant of traditional LED technology that displays light when it absorbs an electrical current. An MIT Technology Review article describes the display technology as being “bright and longlasting” but costly to manufacture, thus it’s used in only a few products like the electronic billboard displays in sports stadiums.

According to InfiniLED’s website, ILED Displays (Inorganic LED Display) is the next generation of energy efficient display technology for applications ranging from wearables to TVs.  Specifically optimized for wearable and portable devices, these low power ILED Displays provide unrivaled performance and product possibilities for designers. Built using arrays of tiny micro LED chips, the energy efficient ILED Display offers 20 – 40X reduction in power consumption.

InfiniLED was originally spun out from the Irish technology research lab Tyndall National Institute in 2011.  Tyndall National Institute is a leading European research center in integrated ICT (Information and Communications Technology) hardware and systems. Specializing in both electronics and photonics – materials, devices, circuits and systems – they are globally leading in their core research areas of:

• Smart sensors and systems
• Optical communication systems
• Mixed signal and analog circuit design
• Microelectronic and photonic integration
• Semiconductor wafer fabrication
• Nano materials and device processing

According to Dr. Kieran Drain, chief executive of Tyndall, “it is exciting to see that Oculus, a vibrant and leading-edge company, appreciates both the technology and the strength of the ecosystem that the InfiniLED team sits in,” told The Irish Times.

Considering the startup has less than 20 employees, according to the news website Silicon Republic, it’s likely that Facebook’s Oculus unit is acquiring the company for its engineering staff rather than trying to commercialize the startup’s existing technology.

The Oculus Rift (virtual-reality headset product) plugs into your computer's DVI and USB ports and tracks your head movements to provide 3D imagery on its stereo screens. The consumer edition Rift uses a 2160 x 1200 resolution, working at 233 million pixels per second, with a 90Hz refresh rate.

In October (2016), Facebook held its annual Oculus developer conference at which Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg said the social network would give $250 million to companies and developers that build VR software in order to spur the creation of more compelling VR content. Facebook has previously given$250 million to organizations focusing on VR software.

## Sunday, October 16, 2016

### Semipolar III–nitride light-emitting diodes with negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W

Research Paper –

Sang Ho Oh1, Benjamin P. Yonkee2, Michael Cantore2, Robert M. Farrell2, James S. Speck2, Shuji Nakamura1,2 and Steven P. DenBaars1,2
Published 7 September 2016 • © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics
Applied Physics Express, Volume 9, Number 10

Abstract
We demonstrate 1 mm2 blue light-emitting diodes with a negligible efficiency droop up to ~1 W. LEDs with 12- to 14-nm-thick single quantum wells were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a free-standing semipolar $(20\bar{2}\bar{1})$ GaN substrate. Packaged devices showed an external quantum efficiency of 42.3% at 20 A/cm2 with a negligible efficiency droop up to 991 mW at 900 mA. At 900 mA, the thermal droop and hot/cold factor were 8.2% and 0.92, respectively. The adoption of a thick active region resulted in excellent optical and thermal performance characteristics that are suitable for high-power lighting applications.

Author affiliations
1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A.

2 Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, U.S.A.

Dates
Accepted 18 August 2016
Published 7 September 2016

## Saturday, October 8, 2016

### Ultra-thin quantum LEDs could accelerate development of quantum networks Research

Researchers have developed all-electrical ultra-thin quantum LEDs, which have potential as on-chip photon sources in quantum information applications, including quantum networks for quantum computers.

Ultra-thin quantum light emitting diodes (LEDs) – made of layered materials just a few atoms thick – have been developed by researchers at the University of Cambridge. Constructed of layers of different ultra-thin materials, the devices could be used in the development of new computing and sensing technologies. The ability to produce single photons using only electrical current is an important step towards building quantum networks on compact chips.

The devices are constructed of thin layers of different materials stacked together: graphene, boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). The TMD layer contains regions where electrons and electron vacancies, or holes, are tightly confined. When an electron fills an electron vacancy that sits at a lower energy than the electron, the energy difference is released as a photon, a particle of light. In the LED devices, a voltage pushes electrons through the device, where they fill the holes and emit single photons.

A computer built on the principles of quantum mechanics would be both far more powerful and more secure than current technologies, and would be capable of performing calculations that cannot be performed otherwise. However, in order to make such a device possible, researchers need to develop reliable methods of electrically generating single, indistinguishable photons as carriers of information across quantum networks.

The ultra-thin platform developed by the Cambridge researchers offers high levels of tunability, design freedom, and integration capabilities. Typically, single photon generation requires large-scale optical set-ups with several lasers and precise alignment of optical components. This new research brings on-chip single photon emission for quantum communication a step closer. The results are reported in the journal Nature Communications.

“Ultimately, we need fully integrated devices that we can control by electrical impulses, instead of a laser that focuses on different segments of an integrated circuit,” said Professor Mete Atatüre of Cambridge’s Cavendish Laboratory, one of the paper’s senior authors. “For quantum communication with single photons, and quantum networks between different nodes, we want to be able to just drive current and get light out. There are many emitters that are optically excitable, but only a handful are electrically driven.”

The layered nature of TMDs makes them ideal for use in ultra-thin structures on chips. They also offer an advantage over some other single-photon emitters for feasible and effective integration into nanophotonic circuits.

With this research, quantum emitters are now seen in another TMD material, namely tungsten disulphide (WS2). “We chose WS2 because we wanted to see if different materials offered different parts of the spectra for single photon emission,” said Atatüre, who is a Fellow of St John's College. “With this, we have shown that the quantum emission is not a unique feature of WS2, which suggests that many other layered materials might be able to host quantum dot-like features as well.”

“We are just scratching the surface of the many possible applications of devices prepared by combining graphene with other materials,” said senior co-author Professor Andrea Ferrari, Director of the Cambridge Graphene. “In this case, not only have we demonstrated controllable photon sources, but we have also shown that the field of quantum technologies can greatly benefit from layered materials. Many more exciting results and applications will surely follow.”

Reference:
C. Palacios-Berraquero et al. ‘Atomically thin quantum light emitting diodes.’ Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12978

## Saturday, August 27, 2016

LED Lighting:
Public Transportation Vehicles Market Forecast

The use of LED-based lamps/devices in public transportation vehicles is forecast to reach $1.9 Billion in 2022 Aptos, CA (USA) – July 5, 2016 -- ElectroniCast Consultants, a leading market research firm, today announced the release of their market research study of the worldwide use of light emitting diode-lighting lamps/devices used in Public Transportation Vehicles. The report provides actual consumption (use) market data for 2015, plus the year-by-year forecast through 2022. According to the market research study, the worldwide value of LED-based lamps/devices on public transportation vehicles reached$1.36 billion in 2015.  During the 2015-2022 timeline, the consumption (use) value is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 4.92 percent to $1.9 billion in 2022. Market forecast data refers to consumption (use) for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data. The Asia Pacific region (APAC) led in global consumption with 51.4 percent in relative market share in 2015. The EMEA region (Europe, Middle East and Africa countries) held a 25.6 percent share of the worldwide public transit vehicle LED lamp/device consumption value, last year. The American region (South, Central and North America) region, led by the United States, is forecast to remain in the third-place position throughout the forecast period. The Bus (vehicle) category held the lead in relative market share of global consumption with 37.1 percent ($505 million) in 2015.  The (more) mature bus category is forecast to increase at a relatively slower pace versus the light-rail/tram public transportation modes, the rapid transit/metro vehicle types, and the high-speed and commuter vehicle types.  The Rapid-transit/Metro vehicle category is forecast to eventually capture the market share lead in 2018, before the Bus category regains the lead in 2022, due to saturation of LEDs in the rapid transit/metro vehicle types.

Of course, public transit includes buses, intercity and metro/underground trains, streetcars and trams; however, ElectroniCast also includes watercraft (ferries) in this market forecast and analysis.  Ferry systems (including comparable water buses), government-operated and private enterprise exist in all regions (worldwide).

www.electronicast.com