Saturday, August 27, 2016


LED Lighting:
Public Transportation Vehicles Market Forecast

The use of LED-based lamps/devices in public transportation vehicles is forecast to reach $1.9 Billion in 2022

Aptos, CA (USA) – July 5, 2016  -- ElectroniCast Consultants, a leading market research firm, today announced the release of their market research study of the worldwide use of light emitting diode-lighting lamps/devices used in Public Transportation Vehicles. The report provides actual consumption (use) market data for 2015, plus the year-by-year forecast through 2022.

According to the market research study, the worldwide value of LED-based lamps/devices on public transportation vehicles reached $1.36 billion in 2015.  During the 2015-2022 timeline, the consumption (use) value is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 4.92 percent to $1.9 billion in 2022.  Market forecast data refers to consumption (use) for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data.     

The Asia Pacific region (APAC) led in global consumption with 51.4 percent in relative market share in 2015.  The EMEA region (Europe, Middle East and Africa countries) held a 25.6 percent share of the worldwide public transit vehicle LED lamp/device consumption value, last year.  The American region (South, Central and North America) region, led by the United States, is forecast to remain in the third-place position throughout the forecast period.

The Bus (vehicle) category held the lead in relative market share of global consumption with 37.1 percent ($505 million) in 2015.  The (more) mature bus category is forecast to increase at a relatively slower pace versus the light-rail/tram public transportation modes, the rapid transit/metro vehicle types, and the high-speed and commuter vehicle types.  The Rapid-transit/Metro vehicle category is forecast to eventually capture the market share lead in 2018, before the Bus category regains the lead in 2022, due to saturation of LEDs in the rapid transit/metro vehicle types.     

Of course, public transit includes buses, intercity and metro/underground trains, streetcars and trams; however, ElectroniCast also includes watercraft (ferries) in this market forecast and analysis.  Ferry systems (including comparable water buses), government-operated and private enterprise exist in all regions (worldwide).

www.electronicast.com  

Global - Market Forecast of LED Lamps

According to ElectroniCast, the worldwide use of General Lighting LED lamps reached $23.6 billion in 2015.


Aptos, CA (USA) – 2016 -- ElectroniCast Consultants, a leading market research consultancy, today announced the release of a just-completed global market forecast and analysis of the consumption of Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps in General Lighting applications.

According to the market study, the worldwide consumption value of specified LED lamps, which are used in General Lighting, was $23.6 billion last year in 2015.  ElectroniCast forecasts the value will increase at an average annual growth rate of 4.4 percent, reaching $30.6 billion in 2021.  Market forecast data in this study report refers to consumption (use) for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data.

The LED lamps covered in this study are used in luminaires in stationary/fixed locations (non-vehicle/non-portable) General Lighting applications. The lamps are used in new fixtures, as well as retrofitting/replacement of existing (installed-based) lamps. The definition for General Lighting is – lighting that is used to provide the main illumination of an area. The ElectroniCast definition of General Lighting also includes directional and supplementary lighting.

LEDs are used in both functional and decorative light fixtures, with an advantage of energy savings. Compared to incandescent lighting, LED-based solid-state lighting (SSL) delivers visible light with reduced heat. In addition, its solid-state nature provides for greater resistance to shock, vibration, and wear, thereby significantly increasing its lifespan.

The worldwide quantity (volume) of General Lighting LED Lamps reached 7.8 billion units in 2015.  “During the 2015-2021 timeline, we forecast that the quantity consumption will grow at an average annual rate of 23.1 percent and reaching 27.2 billion units in 2021,” said Stephen Montgomery, Principal Analyst- LED Group at ElectroniCast.

The market study breaks-out the forecast by eight major lamp types: Parabolic aluminized reflector (PAR), General Service (A-Type), Decorative, Multifaceted reflector (MR) Compatible, Tube and Strips/Tape, Street-lights, High-Bay, and other/ miscellaneous LED lighting.  The lamp categories, in turn, may have multiple sub-categories, which are determined by physical size and Watt equivalents of the lamp.

                                                
Damp-Proof LED Linear Luminaire
Global Market Forecast

Damp-proof LED linear lighting fixtures to reach $2.34 billion in 2022


Aptos, CA (USA) – August 24, 2016  -- ElectroniCast Consultants, a leading market research consultancy, today announced the release of their market forecast study of the worldwide use of light emitting diode-lighting (LED) linear luminaries (light fixtures) specially manufactured for wet, damp and dusty locations.

According to the new study, the global consumption value of damp-proof lighting fixtures, which use LED tubes or LED light boards is forecast to increase from $872 million in 2015 to $2.34 billion in the year 2022 (a 15.2% annual increase).  Market forecast data in this study report refers to consumption (use) for a particular calendar year; therefore, this data is not cumulative data.  

“Damp-proof lights are needed in a wide range of locations such as – parking garages (covered car parks); industrial facilities; subways, underpass/tunnels; sports facilities, indoor swimming pools/area; locker rooms, grocery store cold displays; and an almost endless number of related environments with exposure to vapors, dust, dirt, humidity, water, varied temperature ranges,” said Stephen Montgomery, Director of the LED Lighting market research group at ElectroniCast Consultants.

The Asia Pacific region held a lead over the America region in terms of value in 2015, and then, in 3rd-place, the Europe, Middle East, plus Africa region. HOWEVER – the America region is forecast with faster annual growth versus the other regions; the America region is set to catch-up and eventually take-over the lead in relative market share.

Increasingly, LED-based linear lamps, which are ideal candidates to replace fluorescent tubes, are forecast to finding a niche in the damp-proof lighting market segment.  LED efficiencies are set to exceed those of fluorescent tubes, with dimming and controllable color rendering readily achievable. 

“The potential use of the new LED linear luminaires has strong product competition from existing fluorescent tube-based fixtures, which not only can use fluorescent tubes, but can also be retrofitted with LED Tubes,” Montgomery added.

Web-Site: www.electronicast.com 



 


Tuesday, December 25, 2012

Global OLED Technology Wins Two Key Patent Challenges in Europe


Global OLED Technology LLC (GOT), one of the largest patent holders of Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technologies in the world, recently won major victories by successfully defending oppositions from Merck KGaA to two GOT patents.

December 11, 2012 (Herndon, VA). The Opposition Division of the European Patent Office held that two GOT patents were maintained as amended following oppositions by Merck KGaA of Germany. Particularly, the Office held that Merck's arguments did not prejudice the maintenance of the patents as amended.

"The Opposition Division's decisions confirm the strength of the GOT portfolio and our broad coverage of many different technologies related to OLEDs," said Nelson Kee, Esq., Vice President and General Counsel at GOT. "The rulings were significant for GOT and demonstrates that we will aggressively defend our patent rights throughout the world."

The first opposition related to EP 1730249, which teaches the use of certain anthracenes as non-emitting hosts in the light-emitting layers of OLED devices. The second opposition related to EP 1828342, which teaches the use of hole-transporting material adjacent to the phosphorescent light emitting layer. Both of these technologies enable high efficiency and long lifetime in OLEDs for both display and lighting applications.

About Global OLED Technology LLC

GOT (www.globaloledtech.com) is a leading owner and licensor of a portfolio containing over 2,400 OLED patents and patent applications worldwide. The technology claimed in those patents has many applications in the display and lighting industries. GOT's patent portfolio encompasses a heritage of innovation that began in the early 1980s when pioneering OLED intellectual property was created and incubated within Eastman Kodak Company's research and development labs.

For more information, contact:

Benjamin E. Fuller, Esq.
contact@globaloledtech.com
(703) 870-3282

Wednesday, October 3, 2012

ElectroniCast United States Flashlight

 
Published:                  October 3, 2012
Text Pages:               322
Also Included:            Excel worksheets/Market Forecast Data Tables
Fee:                            $4,400

Contact:       Stephen_montgomery@electronicastconsultants.com 


This is the ElectroniCast analysis and forecast of the use of flashlights in the United States.  In regions outside of the United States, flashlights are often referred to as “torches.”  Flashlights are portable electric-powered light source. The primary power source of a flashlight is batteries (rechargeable or disposable); however, power sources can often include ultra-capacitors, electromagnetic induction, solar power, and hand powered dynamos.

In the process of this market research project, in addition to interviewing existing customers and distributors of flashlights, ElectroniCast Consultants also studied over 50 lighting manufactures/brands with various ranges of performance, price, power-source, light source and other variables. ElectroniCast’s estimates of the (year 2011) market share (%) and flashlight revenue for all 50 manufacturers/brands are also detailed in this report.

Boutique Shops          Some of the (flashlight) manufacturing/brands are relatively small and are considered “boutique” shops serving a niche market; however, we included some of these “boutique” brands, since they are opening up number market segments, which would otherwise be un-served. (Some of these shops have flashlights with a list price in the $500 range).

Specialty Shops          Other companies that we zoned-in on in our research efforts are the “specialty” shops, which are typically much larger in volume versus the “boutique” shops; however, the specialty-brands still address (serve) a niche market.  For example, there are companies/brands that target the Police and Military market segment with list prices of less than $100 to several hundred dollars. Other companies/brands target the medical/surgical (headlamps) or the high-end outdoor sport market segment(s), and others target the explosion-proof market segment with list prices of several hundred dollars, even over $1,000.

For example, the winning sales/distribution-channel for LED lamps used for explosive-proof lighting is the application-specific lighting fixture manufacturer (specific to the explosion-proof lighting segment) that has the experience, expertise and established sales/distribution-channels. Therefore, LED lamp manufacturers should target the existing manufacturers of explosion-proof lighting solutions regarding their sales efforts. 

General-Purpose Companies/Brands            ElectroniCast also researched companies, which serve multiple end-user market segments, such as household in-expensive (less than $5), low- and high-end professional, and even application specific such as the United States military, as well as products with a wide price range. This “General-Purpose” group also has a huge sales/distribution channel involving major retailers, such as Home Depot, Office Depot, Sears, Ace Hardware, Target and an almost endless opportunity in supermarkets, on-line shopping, and on-and-on.

Market Forecast, by Light Source In this study, we provide a market forecast and analysis for the use of flashlights in the United States based on the following light source types, as well as flashlights equipped for recharging versus standard (not rechargeable/equipped types):

·         Light Emitting Diode (LED) Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard

·         Halogen Incandescent Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard

·         Argon or Krypton Incandescent Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard

·         Xenon Incandescent Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard

·         Fluorescent Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard

·         High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Flashlight
o        Rechargeable
o        Standard


A typical flashlight is a hand held unit, however, flashlights are often mounted on weapons, which are tactical flashlights used by the military, law enforcement or even recreationally by hunters.  Flashlights are mounted to helmets or for recreational and work use. In fact, the list of different uses of these portable (cordless) light units is close to endless; therefore, the flashlight industry is constantly driven to identify innovative applications and designs. 

Some flashlights have more than one light source, for example a fluorescent flashlight from Makita also has an incandescent light source; however, the differentiation is that it is a fluorescent flashlight – so, ElectroniCast counts the flashlight as a fluorescent flashlight. ElectroniCast does not “double-count” the quantity of flashlights; therefore, we tend to evaluate the flashlight and assign it a classification based on the main market-push (objective) from the particular supplier (“HID Flashlight with LED,” are classified as a HID flashlight).

Through research and development (R&D), manufacturers are striving to differentiate themselves from competitors, by means of customer end-markets (applications), lumens/brightness, durability, sales/distribution channels, or a patriotic appeal to purchase products that are made and designed in the United States (“Made in the USA”).
           
Market Forecast Application Categories This market forecast of each product-type by the following end-user type (application) categories:

·         Commercial/Industrial

·         Government-Sector
o         Military/Law Enforcement/First Responders
o         Other Government-Sector

·         Consumer/Non-Specific

Market Forecast, By Function        This report provides the 2011 market data review and 2012-2016 forecast for flashlights by the following functions:

·         Consumption Value
·         Quantity (number/units)
·         Average Selling Prices

Since the market opportunity for flashlights continues to evolve, through the push by manufacturers to differentiate from each other to achieve increasing revenue, there is a need to explore technology-driven solutions addressing, but not limited to the list shown below.  The relationship of cost of materials, along with the end-user price-points, are important considerations for flashlight manufacturers; however, there are many other items of interest to consider in finding ways to differentiate from your competitors.

Flashlight

·         Casing: Durable/stronger and/or lighter material, design/color, other
·         Circuit, Contact, Interior Parts, Switch: energy-efficiency, spark-proof, durability
·         Reflector: Durable, designs to increase reflectance and lumen/brightness, other
·         Lens, Lens Seal and Face Cap: Durable, focus-ability/adjustable, heat-resistance, other
·         Light Source: Durable, size, lumen/brightness, energy-efficiency, spark-proof, life-capacity (hours), other
·         Recharging Interface: Integration design from flashlight to recharge unit, material, size, durability, other

Power Source

·         Battery: Size, weight, shape, run-time (hours), replacement availability, other
o        Primary (disposable) battery types used in flashlights include button cells, carbon-zinc batteries in both regular and heavy-duty types, alkaline, and lithium
o        Secondary (rechargeable) battery types include lead acid batteries, NiMH, NiCd batteries and lithium ion
·         Ultra-capacitors/Super-capacitor:
o        The capacitor can be recharged more rapidly than a battery and can be recharged many times without loss of capacity; however, the running time is limited by the relative bulk of capacitors compared to electrochemical cells
·         Electromagnetic Induction
·         Solar power
·         Hand powered dynamos
The most common power source for flashlights is the battery. Many types of batteries are suitable for use in flashlights, such as button cells, carbon-zinc batteries in both regular and heavy duty types, alkaline, lithium and rechargeable lead acid batteries, NiMH, NiCd batteries and lithium ion batteries. The choice of batteries will depend on the light source used, and will usually play a determining role in the size and shape of the flashlight.

Primary cells are used for infrequent use; some types of primary cell can be stored for years, where flashlights are required only in emergencies. Flashlights used for extended periods every day may be more economical to run on rechargeable (secondary) batteries.

Flashlights adapted for use with rechargeable batteries may include features to allow charging without removing the batteries from the light, for example, a light kept in a vehicle may be trickle-charged and always ready when needed. Power-failure lights are designed to keep their batteries charged from a wall plug and to automatically turn on after an AC power failure; the power-failure light can be removed from the wall socket and used as a portable flashlight. Some flashlights are solar powered, using the energy generated from a solar cell to charge an on-board battery for later use.

Ultracapacitors, or supercapacitors, are the new batteries. They recharge (very) quickly, the charge lasts for a long time, and you can keep on cycling them for tens of thousands of charge cycles; however, conventional rechargeable batteries are less expensive and are easily available. 



























Table of Contents

1.         Executive Summary                                                                                                                                                                1-1
1.1       Overview – US Flashlight Market (2011-2016)                                                                                                                     1-1
1.2       Bare (Unpackaged) LED Chips – Overview                                                                                                                          1-26
1.3       Barriers to Growth in the Military/Government Sector                                                                                                         1-31
1.4       Explosion-Proof LED-based Flashlights                                                                                                                                1-34
1.5       LEDs Used in Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS)                                                                                                           1-43
2.         United States Flashlight Market Forecast by Application                                                                                                    2-1
2.1       Overview                                                                                                                                                                                2-1
2.2       Flashlight Use in Commercial/Industrial Applications                                                                                                           2-16
2.3       Flashlight Use in Government: Military, Law Enforcement and First Responder/Emergency Applications                        2-22
2.4       Flashlight Use in Other Segments in the Government Sector                                                                                 2-28
2.5       Flashlight Use in Consumer/Non-Specific Applications                                                                                                        2-34
3.         Competition                                                                                                                                                                            3-1
3.1       Overview                                                                                                                                                                                3-1
3.2       Flashlight Company/Brand Profiles (over 50 companies/brands)                                                                                          3-4
3.3       Market Share (2011) Flashlight Company/Brand Profiles (over 50 companies/brands)                                                        3-72
4.         Flashlight Intellectual Property, Patents and Related                                                                                                            4-1
5.         LEDs – Technology Overview                                                                                                                                               5-1
6.         ElectroniCast Market Research Methodology                                                                                                                       6-1
7.         Definitions                                                                                                                                                                              7-1
7.1       Acronyms, Abbreviations, and General Terms                                                                                                                      7-1
7.2       Acronyms and Abbreviations in U.S. Army                                                                                                                          7-73
8.         Market Forecast Data Base Explanation                                                                                                                                8-1
8.1       Overview                                                                                                                                                                                8-1
8.2       Tutorial                                                                                                                                                                                   8-3
Addendum          Excel – Global Market Forecast Worksheets; PowerPoint Slides

List of Tables


1.1.1    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source Type (Value Basis, $Million)                                                  1-7
1.1.2    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source Type (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)                                    1-8
1.1.3    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source Type (Average Selling Price, $ Each)                                      1-8
1.1.4    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Value Basis, $Million)                       1-9
1.1.5    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)         1-10
1.1.6    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Average Selling Price, $ Each)            1-10
1.1.7    ANSI/NEMA FL 1 Flashlight Basic Performance Standard                                                                                                  1-13
1.4.1    ANSI/NFPA Areas Description                                                                                                                                             1-37
2.1.1    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)                                            2-4
2.1.2    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                                                  2-6
2.1.3    Market Forecast of Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights in the USA By Light Source Type (Value Basis, $Million)      2-9
2.1.4    Market Forecast of Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights in the USA By Light Source Type (Quantity Basis)                                2-10
2.1.5    Market Forecast of Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights in the USA By Light Source Type (ASP $)                              2-11
2.1.6    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Value Basis, $Million)                       2-13
2.1.7    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)         2-14
2.1.8    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Average Selling Price, $ Each)            2-15
2.2.1    US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)             2-16
2.2.2    US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                   2-18
2.2.3    US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type ($Million)           2-19
2.2.4      US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (Quantity)          2-20
2.2.5      US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (ASP $)               2-21
2.3.1    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)        2-22
2.3.2    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)              2-24
2.3.3    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type ($Million)      2-25
2.3.4    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (Quantity)     2-26
2.3.5    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (ASP $)          2-27
2.4.1    US Other Applications in Government - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)              2-28
2.4.2    US Other Applications in Government - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                    2-30
2.4.3    US Other Applications in Government - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type ($Million)            2-31
2.4.4    US Other Applications in Government - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (Quantity)           2-32
List of Tables – Continued

2.4.5    US Other Applications in Government - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (ASP $)                2-33
2.5.1    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications- Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)           2-34
2.5.2    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                2-36
2.5.3    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type ($Million)        2-37
2.5.4    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (Quantity)       2-38
2.5.5    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications - Rechargeable vs. Standard Flashlights By Light Source Type (ASP $)            2-39
3.3.1    Market Share Estimates (% and $ Million) of 50+ Flashlight Competitors/Brands – USA Market (2011)                         3-72
5.1       LED Color Variety – Selected Examples                                                                                                                                5-9
5.2       LED Color Chart                                                                                                                                                                    5-11
8.1.1    Market Forecast and Analysis by Application Category List                                                                                               8-1
8.1.2    Market Forecast and Analysis by Flashlight/Light Source Product Type Category List                                                      8-2

List of Figures


1.1.1    United States Flashlight Market Forecast (Value Basis, $Billion)                                                                                         1-5
1.1.2    United States Flashlight Market Forecast (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)                                                                          1-6
1.1.3    United States Flashlight Market Forecast (Average Selling Price, $ Each)                                                                            1-6
1.1.4    Street With No Illumination                                                                                                                                                   1-17
1.1.5    Street Illuminated with High Intensity Discharge (HID) Flashlight                                                                                       1-17
1.1.6    Single-die LED: 1000 lm at 100 lm/W at 3A                                                                                                                          1-20
1.1.7    LED Packaged Chip/Bulb                                                                                                                                                       1-22
1.1.8    LED Packaged Chip/Bulb                                                                                                                                                       1-22
1.1.9    LED Packaged Chip/Bulb Surface Mount Variations                                                                                                             1-23
1.1.10  LED Packaged Chip/Bulb, as defined by ElectroniCast                                                                                                         1-24
1.1.11 High Brightness LED Packaged Chip/Bulb, as defined by ElectroniCast                                                                              1-25
1.2.1    Diagram of a typical LED chip                                                                                                                                               1-26
1.2.2    Diagram of a typical LED chip                                                                                                                                               1-27
1.2.3    LED Chip Cross-Sectional Structure                                                                                                                                      1-28
1.2.4    ESD Protection Diodes                                                                                                                                                           1-29
1.2.5    Electrostatic Discharge Example                                                                                                                                             1-30
1.4.1    Performance Intrinsic Helmet Light                                                                                                                                        1-39
1.4.2    Explosion Proof LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                             1-40
1.4.3    Explosion Proof LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                             1-41
1.4.4    Cordless, Water-Proof, Explosion-Proof Miners Headlamp                                                                                                  1-42
1.5.1      Chromaticity Limits for NVIS Colors, NVIS White and NVIS Blue                                                                                     1-47
1.5.2      NVIS Response Curves                                                                                                                                                          1-48
1.5.3      NVIS Colors Allowed in a “Class A” Cockpit                                                                                                                       1-49
1.5.4      NVIS Colors: Type I Class B                                                                                                                                                 1-50
1.5.5      NVIS Green A Flip Filter Hood for Flashlight                                                                                                                       1-51
2.1.1    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)                                            2-5
2.1.2    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                                                  2-6
2.1.3    Police-Style Rechargeable Flashlight with Accessories                                                                                                          2-7
2.1.4    Standard-Type Consumer/Household Flashlights with Batteries                                                                                          2-8
2.1.5    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Value Basis, $Million)                       2-13
2.1.6    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Quantity Basis, Million/Units)         2-14
2.1.7    United States Flashlight Market Forecast, By Light Source End-User Application (Average Selling Price, $ Each)            2-15
2.2.1    US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)             2-17
2.2.2    US Commercial/Industrial Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)   2-18
2.3.1    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)        2-23
2.3.2    US Military/Law/Emergency Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)              2-24
2.4.1    US Other Applications in Government - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)              2-29
2.4.2    US Other Applications in Government - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                    2-30
2.5.1    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications- Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Value Basis, $Million)           2-35
2.5.2    US Consumer/Non-Specific Applications - Flashlight Forecast, Rechargeable vs. Standard (Quantity, Million)                2-36
3.2.1    2-C Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                         3-8
3.2.2    Expandable Batons with Integrated Light                                                                                                                               3-9
3.2.3    Focusing LED Flashlight with Tactical Strobe                                                                                                                       3-12
3.2.4    LED-based Surgical Headlamp                                                                                                                                               3-15
3.2.5    LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-17
List of Figures – Continued

3.2.6    Cold Cathode Fluorescent Flashlight/Work light                                                                                                                    3-18
3.2.7    LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-20
3.2.8    LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-21
3.2.9    Military Angle-Type Flashlight                                                                                                                                             3-23
3.2.10 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-24
3.2.11  LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-25
3.2.12 Hands Free Recon Flashlight                                                                                                                                                  3-27
3.2.13 Military Grade Recon Task Flashlight                                                                                                                                   3-28
3.2.14 Flashlights attached to Mining Helmets                                                                                                                                 3-31
3.2.15 LED Tactical Flashlight                                                                                                                                                          3-32
3.2.16 CFL (Fluorescent) Glow Flashlight                                                                                                                                        3-35
3.2.17 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-36
3.2.18 Designer LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                         3-37
3.2.19 Mini Flashlight with Krypton Bulb                                                                                                                                       3-38
3.2.20 (a) 18V Cordless Fluorescent Flashlight                                                                                                                                 3-39
3.2.20 (b) 18V Lithium-Ion Cordless 12 LED                                                                                                                                   3-39
3.2.21 Small Flashlight with Krypton Bulb                                                                                                                                      3-40
3.2.22 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Flashlight                                                                                                                            3-41
3.2.23 LED-based Surgical Headlamp and Carrying Case                                                                                                                 3-43
3.2.24 Combat Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                   3-44
3.2.25 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-47
3.2.26 LED Rechargeable Photoluminescent Flashlight                                                                                                                    3-48
3.2.27 LED Headlamps in Use                                                                                                                                                          3-49
3.2.28 LED Headlamps                                                                                                                                                                     3-50
3.2.29 High Intensity Xenon/LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                    3-51
3.2.30 LED Headlamps                                                                                                                                                                     3-52
3.2.31 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-54
3.2.32 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-55
3.2.33 LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                                        3-56
3.2.34 Flashlight Continuity Tester                                                                                                                                                  3-57
3.2.35 Police-Style LED Flashlight                                                                                                                                                   3-58
3.2.36 Explosion Proof Flashlight                                                                                                                                                     3-59
3.2.37 Magnetic Control Fully Variable Output LED Flashlight                                                                                                      3-61
3.2.38 Xenon Incandescent Bulb Flashlight                                                                                                                                      3-65
3.2.39 High Intensity Discharge (HID) Xenon bulb Flashlight                                                                                                         3-66
3.2.40 Flashlight / Non-Lethal Weapon                                                                                                                                             3-67
3.2.41 Profession Diver Underwater Flashlight                                                                                                                                3-68
3.2.42 High-Performance (1000 lumens) LED Flashlight                                                                                                                  3-71
5.1       LED Chromatic Chart                                                                                                                                                             5-10
5.2       Evolution of Research Emphasis during Technology Life Cycle                                                                                           5-12
5.3       LED Chip: Metal Layer                                                                                                                                                         5-18
5.4       Vertical LED Chip                                                                                                                                                                  5-19
5.5       AC LED Technology on a Wafer                                                                                                                                           5-20
5.6       Ultra High Bright LED Chip                                                                                                                                                  5-21
5.7       Ultra-Thin LED                                                                                                                                                                      5-24
5.8       Solid-State Lighting LED                                                                                                                                                        5-25
5.9       LED Module with High Light Quality                                                                                                                                   5-26
5.10     Transparent and flexible inorganic, organic hybrid n-type Thin Film Transistors (TFTs)                                                    5-30
5.11     Lumiramic Phosphor Technology: Thin Film Flip Chip (TFFC) technology                                                                       5-31
5.12     Wire-to-Board LED Connector                                                                                                                                              5-34
5.13     Next-Generation Light Emitting Diode Module                                                                                                                     5-38
5.14     4-Leaded RGB LED                                                                                                                                                               5-40
5.15     Vertically Conducting Advanced LED Structure                                                                                                                    5-44
5.16     AlGaInP LED Efficacy                                                                                                                                                           4-46
6.1       ElectroniCast Market Research & Forecasting Methodology                                                                                                6-3